The Italian (Milky) Way To Science Fiction 5

 The 1984-like atmosphere of post Genoa seemed to plunge the country into a song by The Clash: Know your rights.46 If the poetics of Evangelisti were close to heavy metal, Riccardo Pedrini’s–aka Wu Ming 5 (the collective of writers Wu Ming was born from the ashes of the situationist Luther Blissett project)–was a direct offshoot of punk. Pedrini came from the experience of squats, redskins’ movement and was the guitarist for the bolognese punk oi band Nabat.47 Pedrini, until then, an essayist and historian of radical youth movements, after having written in 2000 Libera Baku ora, for the independent publisher Derive e Approdi, a dystopian novel that mixes Philip K. Dick and Noam Chomsky in 2001 published Havana Glam (Fanucci48), a novel that is set in an alternative 1970s world where David Bowie is a communist sympathizer and has a “Cuban period” instead of a “Berlin period”. This causes some turmoil in Havana, as the Cuban intelligence suspect the rockstar of being a US infiltrator from the future.

Havana Glam runs in parallel to the second historical novel by the Wu Ming collective, “54” 49, a novel that tells different and convergent stories set in 1954 in which, at the end, some characters, disgusted by the turn of political Italian events, decide to leave Italy and go to support a certain Cuban lawyer, an Argentine doctor and a handful of guerrillas on their way to Cuba.

In 2005, Guglielmo Pispisa, a member of Kai Zen (the collective of which I am a member) after his debut novel à la Kurt Vonnegut, Multiplo, published by the small indie Bacchilega Editore, went major (Einaudi) with Città Perfetta50, a novel that skillfully blended Vonnegut, William Gibson, Tom Robbins, Neal Stephenson with the socio-political context of Berlusconi’s Italy, but with an ironic and elegant style.

***

The issue of immigration, from the end of the Nineties, has become a huge social issue in Italy. Governments, whether left or right, were unable to deal with the issue while post- communist Europeans, Asian and African masses of desperate people fleeing from hunger, war and dictatorships sought to enter Europe through its ports on Italy’s Mediterranean shores. The question of otherness became and ever more pressing metaphysical question. The shadow of an alien invasion was invoked by a number of right-wing parties, while the government opened detention centers, called CPTs in Italian, which were little other than lagers where immigrants were detained (and theair legal and human rights suspended), while waiting for identification and expulsion.

Fazi in 2006 published the essay by Tommaso Pincio ( a pseudonym that refers to Thomas Pynchon) entitled Gli alieni. Dove si racconta come e perché gli extraterrestri sono giunti fra noi (Aliens. Which tells how and why the aliens have come to us), an essay that clearly alluded to the immigration situation, which was followed in 2008 by a sci-fi hard boiled novel that echoed the same issue, Cinacittà, where Rome in the near future will be colonized by China.51

In 2009 Massimo Gardella, published Il quadrato di Blaum (Cabila Edizioni), an interesting mix between Isaac Asimov and George Orwell. Nowadays Gardella is an appreciated and sofisticated crime novel author.

On the dark side of the moon, in 2010 Gianluca Casseri, a minor fantasy author and essayist and neo fascist militant of CasaPound52, wrote with Enrico Rulli, the novel La chiave del caos,53 with a preface by Gianfranco De Turris, the critic that always looked on sci-fi and fantasy as a right wing literary phenomenon that deals with symbols and tradition. Some months later, Casseri, driven by the sense of honor of a hero that defends his land from an alien orcs invasion, or better: driven by hate and xenophobia, killed two boys from Senegal in broad daylight in Florence with a .357 magnum and then committed suicide. It wasn’t either hyperreal or super real, it was the brutal truth, reality once again knocked hard at the doors of unconscious.

The ecological issue is also a hot topic and in 2007 Edizioni Ambiente, a publisher that deals with such issues opened Verdenero, a collection of crime novels in which some of the most famous noir and crime writers grappled with questions like ecomafia or ecological disasters. Verdenero, after the success of Licia Troisi’s fantasy trilogy (wait, I will talk about her in a little while), asked her to write a short novel in tune with the series, but aimed at a younger audience. That book, I dannati di Malva, is still nowadays the best selling title in the collection, even more than those written by very well known noir authors such as Andrea Camilleri, Carlo Lucarelli and Giancarlo De Cataldo. The second attempt was a colossal flop, the fantasy sci-fi crossover Gothica by Francesco Falconi, closed all other possibilities to publish some other fantasy or sci-fi novel.54

In 2007, Kai Zen published, for Mondadori (in creative commons), La Strategia dell’Ariete 55, a hybrid of historical fiction, hard-boiled, spy story and science fiction that won the critics’ Salgari prize and was publicized through a rhizomatic project on the web56. On this book, however, I can’t say more due to “conflict of interest” issues.

In the meantime while large publishers were looking for chickens that laid golden eggs, at independent productions the arrival of the e-book began to give birth to projects dedicated to science fiction that didn’t fit into the traditional publishing market, and so various realities such as Scudo edizioni57 and XII edizioni58 came out. It was an occasion that offered some room for the “made in Italy” indie sci-fi, gothic and horror without worrying too much about marketing and sales.

In 2009, one of the most promising writers of the new generation of noir authors, Simone Sarasso, who had narrated in a brilliant pulp way the Years of Lead in Confine di Stato, painted a dystopian scenario with the graphic novel United We Stand59: in 2013 the left wins elections (well, that’s utopian…). A minute later, just as the first female prime minister in the history of Italy is about to inaugurate a new policy, a handful of neo-fascists (coming directly from the black plots of the Seventies) carry out a coup and establish a dictatorship with the support of the USA, which is at war with North Korea…

***

Despite Evangelisi and a handful of other authors who can put together literary quality, investigation of the unconscious, socio-political issues and original stories, science fiction didn’t take off in the way noir fiction did. Maybe it was the publishers’ fault too.

The two Tolkenian towers that rise on the literary horizon, after the collapse of the twin towers, rose thanks mainly to the generation born in the Nineties. The literary, cinematographic and TV points of reference are different (reality shows, MTV, shojo manga, Harry Potter, Eragon, Twilight and the movie trilogy by Peter Jackson) from the ones of the generation that was born in the Seventies, and even the social, political and philosophical consciousness was different. New technologies and the web were becoming more common and invasive, and hyper-realism and super-realism were swallowed up by the same reality that they tried to fathom. Writers looked to the world through a pseudo medieval past but devoid of any uncanny elements. Theirs is a fantastic Middle Ages very far from the Eymerich one and very close to the one of fairy tales, or rather, uh, to Shrek.

In 2004, a stack of a thousand pages landed on the desk of Sandrone Dazieri, a well- known noir writer who works as a consultant for Mondadori: it was a classic, light, high fantasy, Le Cronache del Mondo Emerso (The chronicles of the emerging world) by Licia Troisi60. The literary value was not of the most sublime, the uncanny was not even taken into consideration and the reference model seemed to be Terry Brooks more than Tolkien, but Dazieri realized the commercial potential of the novel and published it in three volumes. Dazieri had 20/20 vision: the saga sold almost a million copies (!) and was translated into German, French, Dutch, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese, to name just a few. The publishers now got the bit between their teeth, and went out looking for another Troisi. The editors, who had always ignored fantasy, were not familiar with the genre and plunged blindly publishing everything and anything that seemed to be fantasy, preferably written by a teenager. The market for young adult novels was growing and a new actor came on to the stage, Atlantyca, a content producer who commissioned a team of ghostwriters to write fantasy and sci-fi according to certain canons: the first commandment being never, ever use the uncanny. The success of Troisi triggered the rush to publication and so even Einaudi was tempted by Fantasy, and published in 2008, Gli eroi del Crepuscolo61 by Chiara Strazzulla (born in 1990) a mediocre fantasy novel full of clichés.

The walls had been breached and the Tolkien towers of fantasy began to tremble. Many authors of the new wave of fantasy had indeed never read The Lord of the rings, too “boring”, too “demanding” for them. All in all they don’t like to read at all, and many of them, after the Troisi exploit, were in search of a scrap of fame in the social networks, and the publishers seemed glad to please them. The young writers that didn’tesn’t read wrote invaded the literary Middle-earth and the battle of Helm’s Deep was almost lost.

A few tried to resist, tried to use fantasy as the authors of fantascienza did with sci-fi, and there was still some room for them in the publishing houses, which were in search of a lord of the money bring, and so shortly after, Rizzoli published Il tango delle cattedrali62 by Maurizio Temporin, an urban fantasy with a scent of Neil Gaiman and a certain literary pretension. The novel, however, is little more than young adult fiction. Small, medium and large publishing houses dived into fantasy and the fantastic clogging the market. Marsilio, publisher of Stieg Larsson and

many Italian noirs, in 2008 published Pan63 by Francesco Dimitri: a cruel rewrite of Peter Pan set in Rome among human misery and decay. The book was nominated as book of the year for the literary social network Anobii, but even if the sales were good, they were nowhere close to those of Le Croanche del Mondo Emerso. In 2009, Feltrinelli (never interested in fantasy before then) published Esbat64 by Lara Manni, a fantasy horror set between Italy and Japan, a story about the double passage that leads from adolescence to adulthood and from adulthood to death and a dive into the female love and death drive.

At the same time Mondadori also published the gloomy Wunderkind65 trilogy by D’Andrea G.L. (Una lucida moneta d’argento, La rosa e i tre chiodi, Il regno che verrà), three novels that were disturbing and ruthless. A sort of dark and hardcore Harry Potter: Something wicked is about to come;the economic and moral crisis is on its way and D’ Andrea depicts a world in which magic is based on an economic mechanism. Cynically: whoever wants to cast a spell must pay with memory. The more powerful the spell, the more important the memory. Making life easier with the use of magic means giving up the past. The implications of that idea, intended or not by the author, depicted a super-real portrait of a country that, in the course of its history, has always acted that way. Faced with the ethical choice between what is right and what is easy, Italy always chooses what is easy. At the same time the magical, economic concept invented by D’ Andrea also seemed a merciless portrait of the young generation of fantasy storytellers. They paid for the spell of publication by forgetting their history, sacrificing it on the altar of ease. The antagonist with the “moon face” known as the seller, an uncanny mesmerizing villain that recalls another seller who mesmerized Italy for over twenty years (and still does): Silvio Berlusconi (owner of Mondadori…). The trilogy didn’t sell many copies in Italy since Mondadori published it in a series for readers under 15, but was well received abroad and became the booksellers’ novel of the year in Austria. The third volume was published by Mondadori only in an e-book version.

Meanwhile, the market was overloaded with fantasy novels, most of which were of very poor quality. Italian fantasy soon began to be tiresome; no one wanted to read it anymore. On the basis of the limited capacity of analysis and knowledge of the genre by publishers, science fiction was set aside too, although some mainstream authors grappled with it like Alessandra Montrucchio with E poi la sete 66, a novel set in a post-apocalyptic world, Antonio Scurati with La seconda mezzanotte67 set in a dystopian Venice of 2092 or as Enrico Brizzi with the ucronic fiction L’inattesa piega degli eventi68 set in 1960 in a still fascist Italy. (On the fantasy side we have at least to mention the work by Laura Pugno). In the magic world of cinema, the immigration issue is still alive and well and directors like Manetti Bros. shot L’arrivo di Wang69, where a translator acts as interpreter for the secret services in the interrogation of a prisoner who speaks only Chinese. Initially unconvinced, he sinks into terror when he discovers that the prisoner, Mr. Wang, is actually a creature from another planet …

Publishers over the last ten years have behaved as fishermen fishing with dynamite, they were able to catch all the fish in the lake, even the unedible ones, but by doing so they depopulated the lake. The economic crisis did the rest by closing smaller publishers and collections, and killing the few still left with the courage to challenge large publishers. Ten years on from Genoa, Epix a new collection under Mondadori’s Urania Brand focuses on sci-fi and new weird and was about to publish Dampfpunk, a “libertypunk” mosaic novel I edited and written by a number of sci-fi, fantasy and noir authors, which was inspired by the historical events that took place as a result of a severe crackdown by the royal troops at the time of the killing of Umberto I by the anarchist Gateano Bresci. The collection closed after four issues and the new editor of Urania, the former sci-fi novel writer Franco Forte, said that made in Italy sci-fi doesn’t work…

So, no future for Italian science fiction? Who’s gonna tell reality now that reality is gone over hyper and super?

Perhaps fantascienza has a future only abroad as in the case of the H+,70 the digital series (set even in Italy) produced by Bryan Singer and Warner Bros and written by Cosimo De Tommaso and John Cabrera… in Italy nobody would produce it and you can’t see it on youtube unless you hack your IP and pretend to be an American viewer… Or maybe the future of fantascienza could be found in indie e-publishing. Who knows what the future holds. One thing is sure: sci-fi will survive only insofar as it is able, as it was in the Nineties, to push writers to bravely go where no other writer has gone before, bound for that galaxy far, far away off the shoulder of the unconscious, where the uncanny glitters in the dark and the human soul is on c-beams fire.

NOTES

46 Cfr. The Clash, Combat Rock, CBS, 1982. This is a public service announcement With guitar / Know your rights / all 3 of them
I say Number 1: You have the right not to be killed / Murder is a CRIME! / Unless it was done by a / Policeman or aristocrat / Number 2: You have the right to food money / Providing of course you / Don’t mind a little / Humiliation, investigation / And if you cross your fingers / Rehabilitation / Wang! Young offenders! Know your rights / Number 3: You have the right to freeeee speech as long as you’ re not dumb enough to actually try it. Know your rights / These are your rights / All 3 of ‘ em / It has been suggested / In some quarters that this is not enough! / Well… / Get off the streets / Get off the streets / Run / You don’t have a home to go to / Smush / Finally then I will read you your rights / You have the right to remain silent / You are warned that anything you say / Can and will be taken down / And used as evidence against you / Listen to this: run

47 The name of the band came from Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organizations, better known simply as Nabat (Набат), that was an anarchist organization that came to prominence in Ukraine during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, though Nabat had branches in all of the major cities in southern Ukraine. “Nabat” is a Russian/Ukrainian word meaning tocsin, or an alarm drum. The group published a newspaper by the same name.

48 A publisher who has always been interested in science fiction and fantasy, but that until then had never published Italians.

49 Cfr. Wu Ming, 54, Einaudi, Torino 2002. Free downloadable from: http://www.wumingfoundation.com/italiano/downloads.shtml
1954. Hollywood actors, cold warriors, mobsters, drug dealers and homing pigeons. What will Yugoslavian president Tito do, now that Joe Stalin is dead? What is the hidden link between Lucky Luciano in his Italian exile, Cary Grant in schizophrenic combat with himself and a stolen TV set which turns out to be self-conscious and sensitive to boot? So far, the most ambitious Wu Ming collective novel.

50 From the back of the book: A small software company was sold to Morgan Holding, a huge corporation. The group of friends that form the Simpliciter – Ken, the boss, which hires only creative misfits, Max the beautiful, Bella Di Giorno a punk, Chiara the mysterious and the Count, a computer genius – believe they can bring in the Morgan’s new ideas. But Morgan also has a project on young Simpliciter wizards. Morgan must be able to sell to the public its largest investment, not just a real estate: the amazing Perfect City … A dense texture and adventurous background of scenarios that affect us all: the revolution that becomes conformism, work as creative or slavery, the perennial challenge of individual rebellion. “Get used your children from an early age to walk on the right side of the road. Let them learn soon the true values: friendship in higher ground, loyalty to the powerful, solidarity among peers. Grow them strong among the strong and disclose them the future.” (From the self-deprecating advertising of the Perfect City). Cfr. Guglielmo Pispisa, Città Perfetta, Einaudi, Torino, 2005.

51 South of the world is getting warmer, and in Rome is now impossible to live. The Romans have abandoned it. The Chinese and other communities have colonized all the places that we used to consider immortal. One survivor, indolent and apathetic, used to live a very personal version of the dolce vita made of cold beers and evenings at the “Forbidden City”, the Chinese lap-dance temple, is approached one day by Mr. Wang, that speaks a perfect Italian and knows all about the history of ancient Rome. Since Wang puts his eye on him, “Marcelle”, as Wang calls him, changes. He does what it should never do: fall in love with one of the girls before he just looked at…

52 CasaPound is neofascist movement founded on 26 December 2003 with the squatting of a state-owned building in neighbourhood of Esquilino in Rome. Subsequently, the phenomenon is spreading with other squatting, demonstrations and various initiatives, becoming a political party.

53 Cfr. Gianluca Casseri and Enrico Rulli, La chiave del Caos, Il punto d’ incontro, Verona, 2010. In a place and at a unspecified time, nine unique characters come together to give voice to the larvae of people who lived four centuries ago, who were involved in a murky affair. In the Magic Prague in the sixteenth century, an enigmatic entity, the disturbing Illustrated Woman, manifested itself to weaver a plan by the inscrutable purposes that could be fatal for humanity. The only one capable of stop it is Dr. John Dee, magus, mathematician and voarchadumic. In the this fiction of extraordinary events we find reflections on the essence of magic, seen as a form of alternative thought to modernity. The result is a tapestry from the colorful images that bind those who prefer to stop the outward appearance, but giving to people who wish to dive deeper. At this last level, where intertextual narrative subterfuge and challenge the reader to an exciting game of deciphering, makes its way a tremendous awareness, but only for those brave enough – or foolish – that wanted to learn. For all other … is better not to know! (Foreword by Gianfranco de Turris)

54 Verdenero actually asked Kai Zen to write a science fiction novel with a cyberpunk storyline that revolved around environmental renewable energy in Italy. Kai Zen wrote Delta Blues, a cover of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, set in Africa, which revolved around ecological disasters done by the Italian State Petrol Company.
Cfr. Kai Zen, Delta Blues, Verdenero, Milan, 2010. Free downloadable from http://www.kaizenlab.it/senzablackjack.html

55The novel tells the story of Seth’s breath, a chemical compound with extraordinary destructive power, able to subdue human minds and kill whoever comes into contact with it. The story of this unbelievable “weapon” starts in ancient Egypt in around 2500 BC, during the reign of the Pharaoh Cheops. Ever since then, through the centuries, political powers bent on domination have fought to obtain it, coming up against the religious sect of the Ram, whose aim is to safeguard the breath and prevent it from ending up in the wrong hands. The novel soon reveals the weapon’s destructive power, and we discover that it can be kept not only in clay vases, like any normal powder, but can also be stored in the bodies of certain people, who act as immune carriers of the substance. In this way Seth’s breath travels through space and time until 1957, the year which marks the end of the narrative span, apart from the very last pages, whose events take place in the recent past and in the future. The story develops along several narrative threads, which weave together in a common ending.

Cfr. Kai Zen, La Strategia dell’Ariete, Mondadori, Milan, 2007. Free downloadable from: http://www.kaizenlab.it/senzablackjack.html – Some chapters in English: http://authonomy.com/books/10404/the-strategy-of-the-ram/

56 http://www.kaizenlab.it/lastrategiadellariete/index.html
57 Cfr. http://www.innovari.it/scudo.htm
58 Cfr. http://www.xii-online.com/menhir/menhir.php?varRes=1024×768

59 Cfr. United We Stand, Marsilio, Venice, 2009.

60 Her first published book was Nihal della terra del vento (Nihal of the Wind land), published in 2004. This is the first book of a fantasy trilogy entitled Cronache del mondo emerso (Chronicles of the Emerged World). Later, she embarked on a second trilogy, Le guerre del mondo emerso (Wars of the Emerged World) and Le leggende del Mondo Emerso (Legends of the Emerged World). She sold about 900,000 copies in Italy, which currently makes her the best-selling Italian fantasy writer.

61 Cfr, Chiara Strazzulla, Gli eroi del crepuscolo, Einaudi, Torino, 2008. The Eternals live an era of decadence. The world we know is divided, people are at war, alliances are broken. As if that were not enough, Eileen, the king’s daughter, is kidnapped by the Lord of Darkness. Eileen is the girl who loves Lyannen. An impossible love, because she is a princess and Eternal and he is only a halfmortal. Lyannen is not a hero, but with a group of friends go in search for Eileen. The Fellowship of the Forsaken – so they call themselves – is willing to do anything to save the princess, the Realm and the white capital city of Dardamen…

62 Cfr. Maurizio Temporin, Il tango delle cattedrali, Rizzoli, Milan, 2008, Lisa dances the tango as an angel, and the tango is about to change her life. When on a cold winter morning she came back from the market at his home in Buenos Aires, the last thing she expects to find is a giant stone gargoyle perched on the railing of hers balcony. From that moment on, the life of Lisa changes and everything happens quickly and swirling, just like in a passionate tango…

63 Cfr. Francesco Dimitri, Pan, Marislio, Venice, 2008. There are children who dream, and in dreams, each time, they repeat the journey to a large island that does not exist. In Roman nights are lit by the full moon bourgeois villas, and their gardens often rise, unseen, gigantic pirate galleons. In the colder nights of modern Rome a mad spirit is knocking on the door, a spirit of anarchy, ready to return to kidnap us. One hundred years after its first appearance, the Peter Pan of Barrie needed more than ever his subversive, primordial, erotic, free approach to life. The skies of Rome is ready for the fight: pirates and children, old and new gods, an eerie black fable that will eventually teach us how, sometimes, to see the dream world from the real world, does not serve more than raise his head .

64 Cfr. Lara Manni, Esbat, Feltrinelli, Milan, 2009. She’s known as Sensei and is a manga author with many fans. She invented stories full of good feelings set in fantasy world, and for years has drew Legend of Moeru, a worldwide success manga of which she is now about to finish the last tables. Sensei is a woman who manages success with pride and wisdom, with few public appearances. A full moon night, just as she is ending hers most famous manga, she receives a visit from an unexpected guest: Hyoutsuki-sama, Moeru’s antagonist demonic prince. Sensei thought to be crazy, but Hyoutsuki-sama is a real entity, who has lived for years the world she has created and now has gone through to claim a different ending. Sensei falls in love with him and offers him a deal: in exchange for a different ending, the demon offer to be summoned under her control for one night a month. To do this, she must perform a ritual – Esbat – which requires the sacrifice of body parts. After some severed fingers of hand and foot, Sensei decides to sacrifice her fans, which draws at home with the promise of a signed drawing.

65 Cfr. D’Andrea GL. Wunderkind, Una lucida moneta d’argento. Mondadori 2009. Paris, autumn. It is a shiny silver coin to disrupt the lives of Caius Strauss. The coin is the gift of a horrible man with a moonface, and it is impossible to get rid of it: thrown into the Seine or buried in the trash, the shiny silver coin always comes back. Money is the means by which the evil written in the destiny of Caius has chosen to manifest itself, and the key to access the Dent de Nuit, the district that no map has ever reported. A world of darkness which lurks in men with a lethal power and mysterious places such as the library Cartaferina that sells items able to realize dark desires at the price of blood. Infected in the heart of a lunar and apocalyptic Paris, a terrible revelation awaits Caius: he is the Wunderkind, the guy that the inhabitants of the hidden city are willing to die for and the man from the moonface wants to kill. As powerful as a novel by Gaiman and disturbing as the most heinous Clive Barker, Una lucida moneta d’ argento is the surprising debut of a visionary and innovative author.

66 Cfr. Alessandra Montrucchio, E poi la sete, Marsilio, Venice, 2010. In a near future that could be ours, a few centuries after the ‘ Fall’: a climate catastrophe in 2088 that has forever changed the land, reducing it in a largely desert. A European country that could be Italy, where water resources have been privatized and the water now more valuable than oil, decide the difference and the gap between rich and poor, healthy and sick, living and dead. It is in this hot, dirty, thirsty and eternally at war world that the destinies of Sarah, a doctor and the daughter of the president of the state that is about to be overthrown by a conspiracy and Gaël, a drug addict fifteen-year-old son of a journalist that could expose the lies of the regime. A woman and a boy who should be enemies and instead will try, together, to survive four days of chaos and violence, thrown into a race against time to save themselves from those who fight for control of the city and to reach a water source before dying of thirst.

67 Cfr. Antonio Scurati, La seconda mezzanotte, Bompiani, Milan, 2011. Venice – rebuilt by a Chinese multinational company after a terrible flood wave – has become the perverse Las Vegas of European decadence. In an African climate, a crowd of upstarts sought it out to indulge in every vice, and especially to watch the fights between gladiators. Piazza San Marco is, in fact, turned into an arena: the Colosseum of the third millennium. While the Nations dissolve, carnival approaches and masters prepare Chinese luxuries wild and cruel spectacles. The last Venetians who have been prohibited from playing live confined in a ghetto, bent and forlorn. No one seems to want to steal more violence and lust of this brothel of the end times. Yet, even in this Orwellian playground, there are two men who rise up in revolt against the orgy of power. “The Master”, lead the new gladiator, Spartacus and his pupil. The ancient road rebel will lead to the city of women. A book is not only set in the future, but to the future, that life expectancy is only in the sense of struggle.

68 Cfr. Enrico Brizzi, L’inattesa piega degli eventi, Dalai, Milano 2011. Fascist Italy broke the alliance with Hitler in time and in fact it has thwarted the ambitions, earning in 1945 to seat at the table of winners. Since the conflict which was to be in the memory of the Italians as Our War, the Duce out triumphant, even the House of Savoy is eliminated from the political scene, and the new constitution “secular Fascist” without the Church of his social role. For the country, now renamed the Republic of Italy, are seasons of relative economic prosperity and international prestige, but daily life is stagnating, poisoned by decades of authoritarianism, real or imagined opponents suffer deportation in the former African colonies, now equipped with a formal autonomy and promoted to the rank of “associated republics.” In 1960, fifteen years after the armistice, Benito Mussolini is a man of seventy-seven years now nearing its end, and hierarchs are preparing to do battle for the succession…

69 Cfr. http://www.comingsoon.it/Film/Scheda/Video/?key=48649-6950

70 http://www.youtube.com/user/HplusDigitalSeries 

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